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わざと零した 夢で描いた,今に寝そべったままで 時効を待っている

Computer Organization and Architecture Control Unit Operation & Microprogrammed Control

Computer Organization and Architecture Control Unit Operation & Microprogrammed Control Outline Control Unit Operation Micro-Operations Control of the Processor Hardwired Implementation Microprogrammed Control Basic Concepts Microinstruction Sequencing Microinstruction Execution Control Unit Operation The function of a processor Instruction Fetch and Execute Execute program Interrupts Handling performance differences between CPU and other components I/O Function Inter-working with peripherals Composition of instructions Instructions include opcodes and operands Opcodes Determines what type of

Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Level Parallelism and Superscalar Processors

Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Level Parallelism and Superscalar Processors Outline Overview of Superscalar Design Issues of Superscalar Superscalar in Pentium Superscalar in ARM CORTEX-A8 Overview of Superscalar Ideal pipeline 理想的指令流水线的执行过程 指令执行分为6个阶段,且不共享资源 每个时间单位都会有1

Computer Organization and Architecture Reduced Instruction Set Computers

Computer Organization and Architecture Reduced Instruction Set Computers Outline Register and instruction architecture Reduced Instruction Set Architecture The Use of a Large Register File Compiler-Based Register Optimization RISC Pipelining RISC Versus CISC Controversy Register and instruction architecture Major advanced in computers The family concept IBM System/360 1964,DEC PDP-8 Separates architecture from implementation Microprogrammed control unit Idea by Wilkes 1951,Produced by IBM S/360 1964

Computer Organization and Architecture Processor Structure and Function

Computer Organization and Architecture Processor Structure and Function Outline Processor Organization Register Organization Instruction Cycle Instruction Pipelining Processor Organization A CPU must be able to Fetch instruction from memory Decode the instruction to determine what action to do Fetch data Process data Write data CPU必须要能够暂时保存一些数据,以对数据进行处理 C

Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Sets Addressing Modes and Formats

Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Sets: Addressing Modes and Formats Outline Addressing x86 and ARM addressing modes Instruction Formats x86 and ARM instruction formats Addressing What is addressing mode? Elements in the instruction include: opcode, source operand, destination operand, and next instruction address Possible positions of operands Memory Register Immediate I/O Addressing mode specifies how to obtain an operand of an instruction Addressing is relatively simple when the operand is

Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions

Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions Outline Machine Instruction Characteristics Types of Operands Intel x86 and ARM Data Types Types of Operations Endian Support Machine Instruction Characteristics Language Programming language Classification of programming language Machine language Assembly language High-level language Compiler Computers can only recognize machine language Translation program that converts high-level/assembly language programs into machine language Machine language Defined by the compu

Computer Organization and Architecture Computer Aritmetic

Computer Organization and Architecture Computer Arithmetic Outline The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Integer Representation Integer Arithmetic Floating-Point Representation Floating-Point Arithmetic The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Arithmetic & logic unit Core of computer Everything else in the computer is there to service this unit Does arithmetic and logic calculations Handles integers May handle floating point (real) numbers May be separate FPU ( maths co-processor) May be on chip separate

Computer Organization and Architecture Operating System

Computer Organization and Architecture Operating System Support Outline Operating System Overview Scheduling Memory Management Operating System Overview 什么是操作系统 操作系统是一组主管并控制计算机操作、运用和运行硬件、软件资源和提供公共服务来组织用户交互的相

Computer Organization and Architecture Input & Output

Computer Organization and Architecture Input & Output Outline External Devices I/O Modules Programmed I/O Interrupt-Driven I/O Direct Memory Access I/O Channels and Processors The External Interface External Devices Input/Output Problems Peripherals are used for information exchange between computer and environment Wide variety of peripherals Delivering different amounts of data In different formats At different speeds Almost all slower than CPU and RAM Need I/O modules Connection to processor and memory

Computer Organization and Architecture External Memory

Computer Organization and Architecture External Memory Outline Magnetic Disk RAID Solid State Drives Optical Memory Magnetic Tape Magnetic disk A disk is a nonmagnetic circular platter coated with magnetizable material Data are recorded to or read from the disk using the read/write head Hard disks can have one platter, or more Direct access storage Access method 顺序存取:数据以线性的方式存